2.C.6. Particular case of shale gas

2.C.6.     Particular case of shale gas

The shale gas process is described here in 9 key points: these point show with the evidence of scientific studies and 30 years of experience in USA that “shale gas as a safe technic” is a myth. Environmental and human problems posed by shale gas are increasing. These 9 points are the basis to calculate the need of water for shale gas, pollution of air with methane, and pollution of water with chemical products.

This explain the moratorium in France, and in the State of Victoria in Australia.

In order to clarify the debate on shale gas, 9 key issues are outlined below. Those key issues are generally unknown to the general public and yet, they come from official scientific studies and are recognized by the scientific community. Under each of those 9 key issues, scientific surveys pertaining to each issue are referenced:

  • 2.C.6.1. The barrel is sold at $ 50, and produced $ 100

Below are the links for more information on the various analyses of shale barrel costs : http://la-chronique-agora.com/subprime-petrole-schiste/

http://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/energie-environnement/0203967481006-la-chute-du-baril-nemeut-pas-les-producteurs-de-petrole-de-schiste-americain-1068739.php

Below is an expert analysis, by,Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2013/03/AHMED/48823#nb1

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/26/us/26gas.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

The price of a barrel can be checked at the following address: : http://prixdubaril.com/

  • 2.C.6.2. The cost-effective production of a well is 2 to 3 years at most- (3 months in North Dakota for oil )

http://controverses.sciences-po.fr/cours/gaz_de_schiste_2/pdf/3.questions%20%C3%A9co%20final.pdf

http://www.harveymead.org/2014/09/07/le-schiste-la-bulle-financiere-de-notre-temps/

  • 2.C.6.3. Only 6% of gas is collected / in the short term, the rest inevitably rises around the drilling, and for several decades in other places (more quickly in cracks in the ground)

Below is a document from the Gep – AFTP.com Group of professionals, who claim that the recovery rate cannot be higher than 20% even if massive fracturing is being used (see page 13):

http://www.gep-aftp.com/_upload/ressources/hydrocarbures_de_roche-mere/3- le_gaz_de_schistes_son_exploitation-juin.pdf

http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2013/07/10/les-estimations-des-reserves-de-gaz-de- schiste-sont-elles-fiables_3440410_3244.html

Roland Vialy’s report claims that the quantities of gas collected are below 10%. This statistic was confirmed by M.Courme (ex-Director of Total Europe), during a conference organized by the French Rhône-Alpes region in 2011)

http://www.rhonealpes.fr/641-.htm

  • 2.C.6.4. All wells are leaking without EXCEPTION

Report on orphan wells (abandoned after uneconomic operations) in Canada http://cmavi.org/non-au-gaz-de-schiste/fuites-de-gaz-lheritage-empoisonne-des-gazieres/

http://stopgazdeschiste.org/2014/07/02/gaz-de-schiste-et-fracturation-hydraulique- multiplication-des-fuites-de-methane/

Dr. A Ingraffea’s report

http://lesamisdurichelieu.blogspot.fr/2013/01/gaz-de-schiste-ces-fuites-qui-fuient.html

Report by an engineer, M Durand

http://www.collectif-scientifique-gaz-de- schiste.com/fr/accueil/images/pdf/bape/memoire_bape2014_mdurand.pdf

Report by experts themselves – the two most important files can be found in “Appendix_Mines-gas-de-schiste”

  • 2.C.6.5. Distances between wells of 300 m to 2 or 3 km

Report by the gep aftp Group on the classic cases of orphan wells:

http://www.gep-aftp.com/_upload/ressources/hydrocarbures_de_roche-mere/2- gaz_de_schistes_interets_et_problemes-juin.pdf

Report on cluster multi-fractured wells:

http://www.mirova.com/Content/Documents/Mirova/publications/VF/Etudes/MIROVA_ET UDE%20-%20Gaz%20de%20schiste%20et%20autres%20gaz%20non%20conventionnels%20%20nouv elles%20ressources,%20nouveaux%20enjeux_L_Smia.pdf

  • 2.C.6.6. Consumption 15-20 000 m3 on average by successive FHC, renewed 15-20 times per well to maintain the pressure. Maximum on record, so far 42 times!

http://www.franceinfo.fr/emission/expliquez-nous/2014-2015/expliquez-nous-le-gaz-de- schiste-29-09-2014-07-31

This document describes the damaging impacts of fracking on the water table:

http://cdurable.info/Gaz-de-schistes-Dossier-Special-l-Essentiel-pour-Comprendre-et-Agir.html

http://www.arte.tv/fr/qu-est-ce-que-le-gaz-de-schiste-et-la-fracturation- hydraulique/7258938,CmC=7264280.html

The world record for the longest horizontal well is held by Total, in Argentina: who can better that!

http://www.senat.fr/rap/r13-174/r13-1740.html

Report on the new giant wells: as much as 100 000 m3

http://www.desmogblog.com/2014/11/23/monster-wells-hundreds-fracking-wells-using-10-25-million-gallons-water-each

  • 2.C.6.7. No clean technologies for the next twenty years. ‘Water’ technique still involves chemicals.

Report on a technique using agar agar with enclosed computer graphics (?): after 3 years, the venture was an economic fiasco and led to the ruin of Indian farmers.

A document about heptafluoropropane can be found in the Appendix_Mines_Gaz-de- schiste

A document on “oilmen and trust” ( pétroliers et confiance) can be found with indication of source, on page 5, an “organic” product for clean HF can be found in Appendix_Mines_Gaz-de-schiste

  • 2.C.6.8. Methane 75 to 105 times more harmful than CO2, 1/2 life of 12 years, with 100 years: 25 times more harmful than CO2

http://www.global-chance.org/Climat-l-urgence-d-agir-sur-le-methane

http://www.global-chance.org/Climat-l-urgence-d-agir-sur-le-methane

And the latest study by Robert Howarth of Cornell University

http://www.eeb.cornell.edu/howarth/summaries_CH4.php , in English

http://www.eeb.cornell.edu/howarth/summaries_CH4_Fr.php

  • 2.C.6.9. in French – Starting from a one well: possible affected area of up to 900 m under the ground

A series of video can be watched, which focus on the Australian production of shale gas in coal layers. Gas leaks were found in a radius of more than a kilometer.

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=australia+coal+seam+gaz+leaked

  • 2.C.6.10 Conclusion on shale gas:

These 9 point above will be the basis

  • of the critic of the Parlamentary Report 42, November 15th, 2015
  • of the calculation of water needed, and pollution of air and water, in next section.

Reading the very numerous scientific studies enables us to conclude that the regions affected by shale gas production are being destroyed, without experiencing any of the promised benefits. The non-profitability of the investments ( in immediate deficit for as long as the barrel is below 70 dollars and it is necessary to renew many unproductive wells after 2 to 3 years ) makes it imperative to deploy more and more wells in a process which foretells of an inevitable financial crisis. ( Just to maintain production at the same level as the previous year , as many as 7500 new wells have to be drilled. )

  • The solution is well known, and this solution is renewable energy, as a priority at the local level, but global at the same time and not to be relocated, adapted in small units sized according to the needs and situated nearby. But these solutions do not interest the big, multinational companies, which are dependent on large-scale profits and monopolization. Most big corporations are already interested in renewable energy on a large scale (future monopolies! ) while maintaining enormous profits with unconventional gas, thanks to subsidies, taxes and other indecent financial subterfuges.
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